Consultancy firm is usually an organization of experts or professionals in a specific field and has a wide knowledge of the subject matter. The range of areas of expertise covered by the term consultant is extremely wide. One of the more general attributions is as a Management but this is not an exclusive term.
The process of consulting and the means by which the (external) consultant is engaged vary according to industry and local practice. A consultant is engaged to fulfill a brief in terms of helping to find solutions to specific issues but the ways in which that is to be done generally falls to the consultant to decide, within constraints such as budget and resources agreed with the client. In the business, and as of recently the private sphere, the most commonly found consultants are:
- Engineering consultants provide engineering-related services such as design, supervision, execution, repair, operation, maintenance, technology, creation of drawings and specifications, and make recommendations to public, companies, firms and industries.
- Strategy consultants working on the development of and improvements to organisational strategy alongside senior management in many industries.
- Human-resources (HR) consultants who provide expertise around employment practice and people management.
- Internet consultants who are specialists in business use of the internet and keep themselves up-to-date with new and changed capabilities offered by the web. Ideally internet consultants also have practical experience and expertise in management skills such as strategic planning, change, projects, processes, training, team-working and customer satisfaction.
- Process consultants who are specialists in the design or improvement of operational processes and can be specific to the industry or sector.
- Public-relations (PR) consultants dealing specifically with public relations matters external to the client organisation and often engaged on a semi-permanent basis by larger organisations to provide input and guidance.
- Performance consultants who focus on the execution of an initiative or overall performance of their client.
- Immigration consultant who helps through legal procedure of immigration from one country to other country.
- Information-technology (IT) consultants in many disciplines such as computer hardware, software engineering, or networks.
- Marketing consultants who are generally called upon to advise around areas of product development and related marketing matters.
- Interim managers as mentioned above may be independent consultants who act as interim executives with decision-making power under corporate policies or statutes. They may sit on specially constituted boards or committees.
- Financial Management Consultants focuses in dealing with all the kind of financial matters related to the client whether in private sector or in public sector.